Chad: population and cities
According to Countryaah
website, approximately 16.5 million people live in Chad, although the country can be
culturally divided into the predominantly Arab-Islamic north and the
Christian-black-African-animist south. The semi-nomads of the north, who farm
cattle, are opposed to the arable people in the south.
Civil war and prolonged periods of drought made the country one of the poorest
on earth. According to realistic estimates, 80% of people live in absolute
poverty. In the urban regions around 55% are affected by absolute poverty, in
the countryside it is 87%. According to the United Nations Human Development
Index, Chad is ranked 166th out of 167 states. People can only survive through
subsistence farming. The high infant mortality rate of 11.7% contrasts with the
very high infant mortality rate of 20%.
The population of Chad is made up of around 200 different ethnic groups. The
approximately 15% Arabs and Arabized tribal groups such as the Toubou, Kanembou,
Boulala, Hadjerai, Dadjo and Wadai, as well as Fulani and Haussa are mainly
located in the north of the country. Another 30% are Sara and live in the south,
as do Massa and Moundang. 20% of the population are Chadian groups and 2%
Tibbu-Daza groups. 9% of the people are Arabs.
About 56% of the population of Chad are Muslim (especially Sunni). About 22%
profess Christianity (especially Roman Catholic). Furthermore, around 22% of
animists, i.e. followers of natural religions, live in Chad.
While the Muslims live mainly in the north and in the center of Chad, the
Christians and the animists have settled in the south of the country.
Of the 100 languages and dialects spoken in Chad, (Sudan) Arabic and French
are the two most important. If French is the official language, it is only
spoken by an educated minority. Arabic, on the other hand, is cited as a mother
tongue or second language by at least 26% of people. Sudan languages are
spoken by around 60% of the population. These include Sara (20%), Bagirmi and
Kraish (5%). While Arabic is spoken mainly in the north of Chad, Sara is found
mainly in the south. Chadian languages like Kotoko are found in 14% of
people. In addition there are 6.5% Saharan languages (e.g. Dazaga, Tedaga and
Zaghawa) and 1.6% M'óum. Finally there are languages such as Maba (Wadai),
Mbum, Wabumba and Matuszi.
Capital and other cities
N'Djamena, the capital and largest city of Chad, known as Fort Lamy until 1973,
with around 1.5 million residents, extends in the southwest at the confluence
of the Shari and Logone rivers. N'Djamena is connected to Kousseri on the
Cameroonian side by a bridge.
Apart from numerous mosques, the presidential palace and a cathedral, the city
is very poor in terms of sights, but has been proud of the Université de
N'Djamena since 1970.
The capital of the Wadai (also Ouaddai) region in eastern Chad, with around
85,000 residents, spreads out on the border with the Sudanese region of
Darfur. Abéché is traditionally one of the most important trade hubs in Sahel
Africa. Much of the trans-Saharan trade still goes through the city, which has
the second university in Chad with its Adam Barka University. In addition to
other secondary schools, Abéché has a Roman Catholic church consecrated to St.
Theresa of the Child Jesus, a hospital and the only existing post office in the
entire region. Abéché is also the largest garrison town of the Armée National du
Tchad in the east of the country.
In the south of Chad lies Moundou, the capital of the Logone Occidental
region. The 140,000 residents make the Moundou, which extends along the Logone
River, the second largest city in the country.
Since 1959 the city has been the most important industrial center of Chad. It
has an international airport and is the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of
the same name.
Sarh (formerly Fort Archambault)
The largest city in the south and third largest city of Chad spreads out on the
Chari River and functions as the capital of the former Moyen-Chari prefecture.
About 115,000 people live in Sarh, the center of the cotton industry and today a
major hub for goods from all over Chad. The city is also known for its lively
nightlife and the Sarh National Museum.
Chad: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, Chad is located in northern Africa in the middle of the continent and covers
an area of 1,284,000 km². Thereof:
Around 10% of the country is forested.
- Meadow and pasture land
Around 35% of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.
- Dry savannah and desert
Around 47% of the country consists of dry savannah and desert (Sahara).
- Fields and fields
Around 3% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for
growing cotton, millet, sorghum (sweet millet) and peanuts
Chad shares a border with the following six countries:
- Cameroon with a length of 1,094 km
- Libya with a length of 1,055 km
- Niger with a length of 1,175 km
- Nigeria with a length of 87 km
- Sudan with a length of 1,360 km
- Central Africa with a length of 1,197 km.
Longitude and latitude
Chad extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and
geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from around 07 ° 30 'to 24 ° north latitude
Δλ = from around 014 ° to 024 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
Time in Chad
For Chad, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time (without summer time), for example
in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A minus sign means that it is earlier
there, a plus sign that it is later than CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
Highest sun in N'Djamena
N'Djamena lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 12 °.
If the declination δ of the sun has the value of 12 ° north and the image point
of the sun is therefore exactly above the city, the sun is perpendicular
there. This happens exactly twice a year, roughly 45 days before June 21st and
45 days after June 21st.
If the image point of the sun and thus the declination δ is north of the
latitude of N'Djamena, the sun is not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes,
but in the north.
In this case, the sun moves from east to north to west, where, like us, it sets.
The highest mountain in the country is the Emi Koussi with a height of 3,415
m. Other high mountains are:
- Tarsu Musa with a height of 3,376 m
- Tarso Taro with a height of 3,325 m
- Pic Tousside with a height of 3,265 m.
The longest river in the country is the Chari with a length of around 1,200
km. Other rivers in the country are the Logone with a length of
around 1,000 km and the Bahr Salamat, both of which have
often dried up.
The country includes several smaller and larger lakes.
The largest lake is Lake Chad, the area of which cannot be specified precisely
because it varies with the seasons and, when viewed over a longer period of
time, it increasingly shrinks. Lake Chad is extremely shallow (only 3 m in the
south, 7 m in the north), and its size has therefore always been subject to
extreme fluctuations. Scientists assume that about 30,000 years ago Lake Chad
still had an area of 370,000 km² and was therefore the largest lake on earth
at the time. Since then, it has been steadily silting up. At the last high
point, in 1963, the lake had an area of 12,700 km². In the meantime, among
other things, irrigation projects on the rivers that supply water have led to a
reduction in the area to 1,350 km².
Another larger lake is the Fitri lake with an area of around
300 km² and Lac Yoa.