New Zealand: population and cities
Countryaah website, New Zealand has a population of around 4.8 million. It should be of interest
that, after Nauru and the USA, the highest percentage of overweight men
worldwide live here.
Caucasians (whites) around 75%, "native people" Maori around 15%, others from
Polynesia around 6%, Asians 5%. A noticeable increase in the Asian proportion of
the population can be observed.
The main tribes, "iwis", of the Maori people are as follows:
- Ngapuhi, with around 103,000 members,
- Ngati Porou, with approx. 62,000 members and
- Ngai Tahu/Kai Tahu, with around 40,000 members
45% of the population around Gisborne, in the east of the North Island, are
Maoris. The average annual salary of the Maoris is around NZD 15,000. Average
annual earnings for the general population are around NZD 35,000.
affiliation 63% Christians of different faiths, 31% are non-denominational
and there are around 2% Maori Christians, 1.2% Buddhists, 1.1% Hindus, 0.5%
Muslims, 0.2% Jews, approx. 1% others
The national languages are English and the language of the indigenous people
(Maori) Te Reo.
Capital and other cities
The capital of New Zealand is Wellington, with a population of around
Other cities are:
Assassination attempt in Christchurch
On March 15, 2019, Australian-born right-wing extremist Brenton Tarrant (born
1990) killed a total of 50 Muslims while praying, first in the Al Noor Mosque
and then in the Lindwood Mosque in the city of Christchurch on the South
Island. It was by far the worst attack in New Zealand history. To justify his
act, he published a 70-page pamphlet entitled “The Exchange”, in which he
refers, among other things, to the Norwegian Ander Brevik, who murdered 77
people in Oslo and on the island of Utøya in 2011.
New Zealand: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, New Zealand is located in the South Pacific about 1,940 km southeast of
Australia. Geographically, it belongs to the continent of Australia.
The state consists of a north and a south island, which are separated at their
narrowest point by the approx. 20 km wide Cook Strait, named after the English
navigator James Cook (1728-1779). The South Island is divided in half from north
to south almost in the middle by a mountain range, the New Zealand Alps. The
highest mountain in New Zealand, Mount Cook, is located in this mountain range
with a height of 3,764 m. A total of 223 mountains are higher than 2,300 m.
On the west side there is a very rainy and harsh climate, while the climate
on the east side with many flat areas is rather mild and also less rainfall. The
north of the South Island consists of numerous fjord-like bays, which are
bordered by islands and peninsulas.
The central part of the North Island is part of a volcanic belt with numerous
higher mountains, including the highest mountain on the North Island, the 2,797
m high volcano Mount Ruapehu. Imposing - almost from sea level - Mount Egmont
rises to a height of 2,518 m near New Plymouth on the west coast of the North
Australian and Pacific
tectonic plates New Zealand is located on two of the Earth's 15
tectonic plates, namely on the interface of the Indo-Pacific and
Pacific-continental plates, which rub against each other. The fault runs from
north to south across the two islands. As a result, New Zealand is frequently
hit by earthquakes. Volcanoes, geysers, and hot springs are another consequence
of Earth activity.
Area and land use
New Zealand covers a total area of 270,534 km².
The area of the South Island with 150,440 km² is somewhat larger than that of
the North Island.
Around 27% of the country is forested. Sometimes there is an almost
impenetrable primeval forest (rainforest) of fascinating beauty, such as the
western country on the west coast of the South Island, where over 10,000 mm
of annual rainfall leads to wonderfully lonely and almost impenetrable
However, when you consider that New Zealand was originally 78% covered with
dense, evergreen forest, one becomes aware of overexploitation. Almost the
entire population of the giant kauri trees was cut down within just 100
- Meadows and pasture land
Around 52% of the land is used as meadow or pasture land, especially for
sheep, dam and red deer breeding as well as cattle.
- Fields and fields
Only about 2% of the land is used as arable land, especially for growing
corn, tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes, garlic, wheat and sunflowers. In
addition, avocados, grapefruits, kiwis, peaches and oranges grow in various
plantations. Furthermore, very good wine is grown in some regions.
In the Southern Mountain-Chain Alps of the South Island there are 223 peaks
with a height of over 2,300 m.
This mountain range runs centrally through almost the entire South Island. A
little further to the east of the North Island is a volcanic chain that
begins at Mount Egmont near New Plymouth and is part of the Pacific ring of
volcanoes, also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire.
This includes around 62% of all still active volcanoes and stretches in a
ring around almost the entire Pacific. The following three volcanoes are
still active in New Zealand: the Ruapehu (2,797 m), the Ngauruhoe (2,291 m)
and the Tongariro (1,968 m).
All three volcanoes are part of the Pacific Fire Belt.
National borders, length of coast
Due to its location, New Zealand has no national borders with other
countries. The state has a coastline of around 15,000 km.
Tidal range in Auckland
In Auckland, the mean tidal range is around 3-4 m.
The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada,
where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20 meters. The Bay of
Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is
On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the
western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while
it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
New Zealand extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation
Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 34 ° S to 37 ° S
Δλ = from 166 ° E to 179 ° E
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
Legal time (time zones)
For New Zealand, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET),
i.e. the time without daylight saving time. A minus sign means that it is
earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than CET.
|Δt (CET) = + 11 to + 13
(Depending on the summer time in Germany)
On the Chatam Islands, add another 45 minutes.
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
Highest sun in Auckland
Auckland lies at a south latitude of around φ = 37 °. If the sun is at the
tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 ° S, summer starts in Auckland, this is December
21st. Thus, for the highest position of the sun around noon according to Eq. 1
(see position of the sun).
- 37 ° = - (90 ° - h) + -23.5 °
At 76.5 °, the sun is the highest level of the entire year above the horizon
(more precisely: above the horizon).
Sun and moon
In New Zealand the sun is not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes, but in
the north. So the sun moves here - as in all of New Zealand from east to north
to west, where it then sets, as with us.
And the moon, which with us in the sky - if it is waning - forms a small "a",
increases in contrast to the same sight in the sky in the southern hemisphere!
Mountains, Mount Cook
The highest mountain in the country is Mount Cook, which is named after
the English navigator James Cook (1728-1779) and has a height of 3,764 m. It is
located on the South Island.
With a height of 3,498 m, Mount Tasman is the second highest mountain
in the country. It is located northwest of Mount Cook on the South Island.
The highest mountain on the North Island is Mount Ruapehu volcano with
a height of 2,797 m. It is located in the middle of the North Island in the
Tongariro National Park and is one of three neighboring volcanoes, along with
the Ngauruhoe and the Tongariro. Incidentally, this volcanic mountain had its
last eruption in 1995/96. On December 24, 1953, as a result of an eruption, a
mudslide (lahar) occurred, which caused the Tangiwai railway bridge to
collapse. Some wagons and the locomotive of the approaching train, which was on
the way from Auckland to Wellington, crashed into the Whangaehu River. In this
accident - which went down in history as the Tangiwai railway accident - 151 of
the 285 passengers were killed.
Mount Egmont (Taranaki) Mount Egmont (Taranaki)
rises imposingly from the plain near New Plymouth at a height of 2,518
m. Mount Egmont is a volcano that had its last eruption in 1755 and is currently
The longest river in the country is the Waikato River on the North Island with a
length of around 425 km. The Waikato rises from the largest lake in New Zealand,
Lake Taupo, near the city of the same name. Shortly behind the lake it forms an
impressive rapids, the Huka waterfalls, which at the end pour like waterfalls
into the broad stream. It flows into the sea between Hamilton and Auckland.
The shortest river is the Turanganui River with a length of only 1,200
m. It flows through Gisborne. At its mouth, James Cook first met the indigenous
people of New Zealand.
The Whanganui River on the North Island, with a length of around 290
km. The Whanganui River is without a doubt one of the most beautiful and
traditional rivers in the country, which is closely linked to the Maori
culture. It flows into the Pacific near the city of the same name, Wanganui
The longest river in the South Island is the Clutha River with a length
of 336 km, which rises from Lake Wanaka and flows into the sea about 60 km south
of Dunedin on the east side of the island.
Waimakiri River, Otira River, Gray River
Other rivers on the South Island are the Waimakiri River, the Otira
River and the Gray River, which flows into the sea at Greymouth on the west
The Buller River with a length of 170 km flows into the Pacific at
Westport. It has its source in Lake Rotoiti.
The largest lake is Lake Taupo with an area of around 606 km². It is
located on the North Island. The town of the same name, Taupo, with around
22,000 residents and is considered one of the most important vacation spots in
New Zealand, lies on it. New Zealand's longest river, the Waikato, rises from
Other larger lakes:
- Lake Te Anau, with an area of around 344 km2
- Lake Wakatipu, where Queenstown is
- Lake Wanaka, from which the Clutha River rises
Around 144 islands are offshore or belong to the state elsewhere. The
numerous, sometimes very small islands on the northern tip of the South Island
and the islands north of the North Island are particularly impressive. Belong to
the New Zealand Islands
Stewart Island with an area of 1,746 km2 and approx. 240
residents is the third largest island in New Zealand and is located approx. 30
km south of the South Island. Live here among others. Sea lions that are
Kermadec Islands, which are uninhabited today, were not always so. They
served the Polynesians as a stopover on their journeys to New Zealand. The
islands are about 100 km northeast of New Zealand. They are made up of the
- Raoul, with an area of 34 km2
- Macauley, with an area of approximately 380 km2
- Curtis and Cheeseman, with an area of approx. 60 ha
= 0.6 km2
- l'Esperance Rock, with an area of approximately 4.8
ha = 0.048 km2
Stephens Island is a 1.84 km² small rock island in the Cook Strait
between the North and South Island and belongs to the Marlborough Sounds, a
group of small islands. Stephens Island was first described by Abel Tasman in
1642. Before 1894 the island was uninhabited, but with the lighthouse came the
keeper with his family and cats, who very quickly exterminated the almost
flightless ground-breeder - the St. Stephen's hatchback (Xenicus lyalli) - who
The bridge lizard, whose beginnings go back to the time of the Sauerians, still
lives here. In addition, one of the most ancient frog species in the world
exists here, the Hamilton frog (Leiopelma hamiltoni).
Great Barrier Islands
Great Barrier Islands, north of the Coromandel Peninsula, covers an
area of 285 km2
Chatam Islands, which are about 860 km east of the South Island. The
only living Morioris can be found on the islands. The archipelago is made up of
around 40 islands, which cover a total area of 970 km2. The
islands are located east of the 180th degree of longitude, but the date line
makes an arc around the islands and runs east of the islands, whose time is + 45
minutes to New Zealand time.
Dependencies - New Zealand dependent areas:
- Cook Island in the South Pacific, with
an area of 237 km2 and approx. 18,000 residents, is a
self-governing monarchy associated with New Zealand.
- The Tokelau Islands, with an area of 12 km2 and
about 1,500 residents.
- The Niue Islands, with an area of 263 km2,
about 2,100 residents and the capital Alofi. Niue is a
parliamentary-democratic monarchy in the Commonwealth. The state is a
self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand.
Circumpolar Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands of New Zealand
These islands of New Zealand are located south of the country and north
of the Antarctic convergence.
- The Snares Islands, with an area of 3.28 km2,
which are located at a geographic position of 166 ° 30 'East and 48 ° 00'
South. On the Snares Islands, evidence of a settlement by the Maoris before
the modern discovery of the islands was found. Entering the island is not
- The Bounty Islands, with an area of 1.35 km2,
which are geographically located 179 ° 05 'East and 47 ° 45' South. The
highest point measures approx. 70 m.
- The Antipodes Islands, with an area of 20.97 km2,
with Mt. Galloway with a height of 366 m. The islands are geographically
located 178 ° 45 'east and 49 ° 40' south.
- The Auckland Islands, with an area of 625 km2,
with Mt. Dick with a height of 705 m as the highest mountain and Lake
Turbott as the largest lake. The islands have a large natural harbor,
Carnley Harbor. The archipelago is made up of four main islands: Auckland
Island, Adams Island, Ewing Island and Enderby Island. On the latter,
600-year-old evidence of Maoris has been found. In 1842, a group of Maoris
from the Chamtam Islands settled in Port Ross on Auckland Island with some
Morioris they had enslaved.
- The Campbell Island, with an area of
113 km2 with the Mt. Honey with a height of 569 m and the Six
Foot Lake, the largest lake. It is the southernmost of New Zealand's
In the very south on the west coast of the South Island, a total of 14 fjords
extend over a length of about 200 km - which are referred to here as
"Sound". The region is known as Fiordland. The most famous fjord is probably the
"Doubtfull Sound", which got its name from a saying by James Cook, who anchored
here in 1770 that it seemed doubtful to him to sail into it. The fjords and the
adjoining gorges are so deep, narrow and lacking in sunshine that the locals
refer to them as "shadow land".
In this area there is also the approximately 1.5 km² "Breaksea Island" in King
George Sound, which is a strictly protected nature reserve and may only be
entered for scientific purposes. From 1990 onwards, the local rats, weasels,
martens and ermines, which were brought in by the settlers, began to be
exterminated here, thus giving the former native and ground-breeding birds that
had disappeared a new chance of survival - very successfully so far. Especially
the kiwi, the symbol of New Zealand, finds good living conditions here. The fur
seals, which used to be heavily hunted, have also found a protected habitat
here. A special feature on the island is the 2.5 cm large weevil. The weather
here is very stormy and extremely rainy.
Pacific Ocean, Tasman Sea
New Zealand is bordered by the Tasman Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean
to the east.