Peru: population and cities
According to Countryaah
website, around 33 million people live in Peru.
47% Indians, 37% Mestizos, 13% Europeans, minorities: Africans, Japanese,
Chinese and mulattos.
affiliation Roman Catholic: 95%, Protestant Church: 3%. Natural religions are
widespread among the Indians. Within the Catholic Church in Peru, a special form
of religious interpretation developed:
The "Theology of Liberation"
This term is based on the book of the same name by the Catholic theologian
Gustavo Gutièrrez. Accordingly, being a Christian means taking the side of the
poor and living in solidarity with them. For Gutièrrez, this is not only a
problem for Christians in the Third World, but the central question for
Christianity in general. He is thus in opposition to the local Church and above
all the papal Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in Rome.
National language The official languages are Spanish and
Quecha (Quechua). Aymará is also widespread.
Capital, other cities
The capital of Peru is Lima with around 9.3 million residents. Other cities
- Trujillo with around 610,000 residents
- Callao with around 750,000 residents
- Arequipa with around 720,000 residents
- Chiclayo with around 480,000 residents
- Iquitos with around 400,000 residents
Defined by DigoPaul, Peru is located on the west coast of South America between the equator and 18
° 21 'south latitude. It borders the Pacific to the west, Ecuador and Colombia
to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, and Chile to the
Area, landscape and national borders
Peru covers an area of 1,285,216 km², its north-south extension is around
2,030 km. The country is divided into three major natural regions: the coast,
the Andes and the Orient.
The coastal desert in western Peru, called Costa, is around 2,000 km long and 40
to 150 km wide. It makes up around 11% of the state's area. It is interrupted by
numerous cordillera rivers, which are surrounded by oases.
The high mountains of the Andes, called sierra, consist of two cordilleras that
meet at Cerro de Pasco. The sierra occupies about 26% of the state's
territory. The western cordillera has the highest peaks in the country in the
north in the Cordillera Blanca (Huascarán 6,768 m) and in the Cordillera
Huayhuash (Yerupaja 6,632 m) and also has numerous volcanic cones. The Eastern
Cordillera is generally lower. It consists of several mountain ranges that are
broken by rivers rich in water in canyon-like valleys.
In the east joins the Oriente, which takes up about 63% of the national
territory. It is divided into the Montaña, a mountain forest, and the Selva, a
tropical, humid, sparsely populated woodland (rain forest).
From the area of Peru are:
Around 66% of the country is forested.
- Meadows and pastureland
Around 20% of the land is used as meadows or pastureland.
- Arable land and fields
Around 3% of the country (around 3.5 million ha = 35,000 km 2.)
Is used as arable land. The main growing area is in the coastal region
(Costa). Mainly cotton, sugar cane, rice and fruit are grown here. Since in
Peru the annual mean temperatures are still around 16 °C even at an
altitude of 3,000 meters, arable farming is possible up to an altitude of
4,000 meters. Tea, coffee and rice are grown on the eastern slopes of the
Andes. In the Amazon lowlands, it is primarily pulses, rice and bananas, and
natural rubber is also extracted here. Peru is also the world's largest coca
producer, with an estimated 6% of the cultivation area used for the illegal
cultivation of coca.
The coastal desert (Costa) in western Peru is about 2,000 km long and 40 to
150 km wide. It makes up around 11% of the state's area.
The mountainous country of the Andes, the Sierra, takes up about 26% of the
The country borders the following five states:
- Bolivia with a length of the border of around 900 km
- Brazil with a length of the border of around 1,560 km
- Colombia with a length of the border of around 1,496 km
- Ecuador with a length of the border of around 1,420 km
- Chile with a length of the border of around 160 km
Peru's coast borders the Pacific Ocean with a length of around 2,415 km.
In Chimbote the mean tidal range is around 0.7 m.
For detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.
The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada,
where it is up to 16 meters, and at spring tide even over 20 meters. The Bay of
Fundy is located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is
On the German North Sea coast it varies between one and three meters. In the
western Baltic Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 meters, while
it is barely noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
Peru extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and
geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 0 ° to 18 ° 21 'southern latitude
Δλ = from 68 ° 40' to 81 ° 20 'western longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Peru, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time without summer time. A minus sign means that it is earlier there, a
plus sign that it is later than CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Lima
Lima lies at a southern latitude of around φ = 12 °.
When the declination δ of the sun reaches the value of 12 ° S and the image
point of the sun is thus above the city, the sun is perpendicular there. This
happens twice a year, 47 days before March 21st and 47 days after September 21st
(for details, see the highest solar levels).
If the image point of the sun and thus the declination δ is north of the
latitude of Lima, and this is the case for a large part of the year, the sun is
not in the south at noon, as in our latitudes, but in the north. The sun then
moves from east to north to west, where it sets.
Mountains, Nevado Huascarán
The highest mountain in Peru and the fourth highest mountain in South America is
the Nevado Huascarán with a height of 6,768 m. It is located in the Cordillera
Blanca in the Andes - in the Huascarán National Park. The mountain consists of
two peaks, the Huascaran Sur (6,768 m) and the Huascaran Norte (6,652 m).
The summit of the lower Huascaran Norte was climbed in 1908 by the American
Annie Smith Peck. The first ascent of Huascaran Sur took place on July 20, 1932
by a German-Austrian expedition.
As a result of a severe earthquake measuring 7.9 on May 31, 1970, a massive
landslide occurred on the northwest flank of the mountain, as a result of which
the city of Yungay was literally destroyed. Around 70,000 people were killed in
Yerupaja (Nevado Yerupaja) is the second highest mountain in Peru with
a height of 6,632 m and one of the most difficult in America for
mountaineers. The mountain lies in the Cordillera Huayhuash - is a mountain
range in the Andes with six peaks over 6,000 m altitude. The mountain was first
climbed in 1950 by Jim Maxwell and Dave Harrah. Even Reinhold Messner and Peter
Habeler tried their hand at the mountain in 1969, taking the previously
unconquered eastern route. But on the summit ridge, the two of them had to turn
back due to the ground conditions of rubble and extremely soft snow, so that
they were denied climbing the summit.
The Jirishanca has a height of 6,094 m. The mountain is located at the northern
end of the Cordillera Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks
over 6,000 m high. Its concise shape, an ice-covered pyramid, the mountain
appears like an ice-covered pyramid and is therefore also known as the
"Matterhorn of Peru". The Austrians Toni Egger and Siegfried Jungmeir made the
first ascent of the mountain in 1957.
The "sleeping" stratovolcano Coropuna has a height of 6,425 m and is thus the
highest volcano in Peru. The Coropuna is heavily glaciated and belongs to the
volcanic chain (Cordillera Volcánica) in southern Peru - 150 km northwest of the
city of Arequipa. As a result of global warming, the mountain's snow line is now
at an altitude between 5,300 and even 5,600 m. In addition, the size of its
glacier area has decreased in the last 50 years from approx. 123 km² to 57 km²,
ie more than halved.
The Siula Grande has a height of 6,344 m. The mountain lies in the Cordillera
Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks that are over 6,000 m
The first ascent was made on July 28, 1936 by German mountaineers Arnold
Awerzger and Erwin Schneider.
The Hunadoy has a total of four peaks, the highest of which is 6,395 m
high. The mountain is located in the Peruvian Andes - in the Cordillera Blanca
in the Huascarán National Park. Nearby - only separated from each other by the
Quebrada Llanganuco valley - is the m high Nevado Huascarán. The summit of
Huandoy was climbed for the first time by German mountaineers in 1932.
The four peaks:
main peak Huandoy with a height of 6,395 m
Huandoy-West with a height of 6,356 m
Huandoy-South with a height of 6,160 m
Huandoy-East with a height of 6,070 m
The Huantsán (Nevado Huantsán) has a height of 6,395 m and is therefore
just as high as the Nevado Huandoy. The mountain is heavily glaciated and is
located about 25 km east of the city of Huaraz in the Ancash region in the
Huantsán National Park. Like the Hunadoy, this mountain also consists of four
peaks - in addition to the highest peak, the 6,270 m high Huantsán Oeste, the
6,113 m high Huantsán Norte and the 5,913 m high Huantsán Sur. The mountain was
climbed for the first time on July 7, 1952.
The Ausangate (Auzangate, Awsanqati) has a height of 6,336 m. The mountain is
located in the south of the country in the south of the country - southeast of
Cusco on the western edge of the Cordillera Vilcanota. The mountain was first
climbed in 1953 by the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer (1912-2006).
The mountain has a special religious meaning for the people of the region. On
the north side of the mountain, shortly before the Corpus Christi festival, many
thousands of believers - most of them are Indians - make a pilgrimage to the
snow-covered heights to the church of Sinakara, where they make
offerings. Masses are also celebrated and prayed. Groups of costumed dancers
also appeared. The climax of the festivities are the so-called ukukus (guards)
with their wool masks and torn clothes. They are responsible for keeping order
in the camp and on the penultimate day of the celebrations they walk to the
sanctuary on the glacier, where they spend the night and when they return from
the glacier they bring small pieces of ice with them, which are distributed
among the faithful. You think
The Ampato is a "dormant" stratovolcano and, with a height of 6,288 m, also
belongs to the six-thousanders in Peru. It is located in the Andes in southern
Peru - about 100 km northwest of the city of Arequipa, which has a population of
around 785,000. It lies at the southern end of an approximately 20 km long
"series" of three high stratovolcanoes. At the northern end is the extinct 6,025
m high Nevado Hualca Hualca and in the middle the still active 5,975 m high
Sabancaya. The mummy "Juanita" was found at the Ampata. The mummy was found in
September 1995 at an altitude of about 5,000 m. The approximately 14 year old
Inca girl was killed between 1440 and 1450 as a human sacrifice for the
mountain, believing in a good harvest. The mummy is now in the "Museo Santuarios
Andinos" in Arequipa,
The Palcaraju (Nevado Palcaraju) has a height of 6,274 m. The mountain is
located in the Andes - in the Cordillera Blanca. The closest city is Huaraz. The
mountain was climbed for the first time in 1939. In addition to the main peak
Palcaraju Centro, the mountain has the following three peaks:
Palcaraju Este with a height of 6,180 m
Palcaraju Oeste with a height of 6,110 m
Palcaraju Sur with a height of 5,900 m
The Salcantay (Salkantay) has a height of 6,264 m. The mountain is the
highest mountain in the Cordillera Vilcabamba region - about 60 km northwest of
the city of Cusco. The mountain was first climbed in 1952 as part of a French
expedition. The standard route today goes over the northeast ridge to the
According to the beliefs of the Incas of that time, the mountain represented the
deity of fertility and weather in the Cusco region.
Nevado Hualca Hualca
The Nevado Hualca Hualca is a 6,025 m high extinct stratovolcano, which
is part of a total of three volcanoes lying in a row. It is located in the Andes
in southern Peru - about 100 km northwest of the city of Arequipa, which has a
population of around 785,000. It is located at the northern end of a 20 km long
"series" of three high stratovolcanoes. In the middle is the still active 5,975
m high Sabancaya and at the southern end of the chain is the 6,288 m high
The Yerupaja Chico has a height of 6,121 m and is also located in the
Cordillera Huayhuash - a mountain range in the Andes with six peaks that are
over 6,000 m high
The Chachani (Nevado Chachani) is of volcanic origin and has a height
of 6,075 m. The mountain is located in southern Peru - north of Arequipa.
The mountain can also be climbed by those with little experience in
mountaineering - but healthy and fit people. Due to global warming, however, the
ground is thawing, which has led to a certain risk of falling rocks.
In the city of Arequipa, one-day and multi-day tours are offered. The
participants are driven to a base camp at an altitude of around 5,200 meters
with the help of off-road vehicles. In this respect, only a little more than 80
meters of altitude need to be covered. Quite strenuous at this height, so that
it takes about 8 hours to get to the top.
The Chaupi Orco is a double peak consisting of the 6,044 m high Chaupi
Orco North and the 6,000 m high Chaupi Orco South. The peaks are in the
Apolobamba cordillera in the border area of Peru and Bolivia - about 240 km
northwest-west of La Paz. The two mountain peaks are covered with snow and
partly ice all year round.
The Artesonraju is a stratovolcano with a height of 6,025 m. It is
located in the Cordillera Blanca in the Andes - in the Ancash region. The
mountain has the shape of an icy pyramid and is very popular with mountaineers
despite its high avalanche danger.
With its height of 5,947 m, the Alpamayo is only just below the 6,000 m
limit. But the mountain impresses with its extraordinary beauty - it is wrapped
from top to bottom in a radiant white of snow and ice. Some consider it the most
beautiful mountain in the world. The mountain is located in the north of the
Cordillera Blanca in the Andes in the Caraz district. The mountain was climbed
on June 19, 1957 by the Germans Günter Hauser, Bernhard Huhn, Frieder Knauss and
So beautiful the Alpamayo, so "ugly" is the stratovolcano El Misti with a height
of 5,822 m. The volcano, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the city
of Arequipa and is mostly free of snow and ice, is reminiscent of a huge pile of
sand or rubble. Because of its proximity to the city, it dominates the image of
Arequipa to a large extent, in whose city arms the mountain is located. The
Misti lies between two other volcanoes, the 6,075 m high Nevado Chachani and the
5,486 m high Picchu Picchu. The still active El Misti volcano last erupted in
1784. In the event of an outbreak, the city and its approx. 850,000 residents
would be severely endangered by lava flows, lahars and pyroclastic avalanches.
In 1998 archaeologists found six mummies from the time of the Incas near the
crater, which are now in the "Museo de Santuarios Andinos" in Arequipa.
Nevado Mismi (source of the Amazon)
Although the Nevado Mismi "only" has a height of 5,597 m, it is still shown
because this is the source of the Amazon. The mountain is located about 20 km
northwest of the city of Chivay - in the region of Arequipa and about 160 km
west of Lake Titicaca. During a 2001 National Geographic Society expedition, it
was confirmed that the source of the Amazon is on the northern slopes of the
Nevado Mismi. This is where the Río Apurímac arises, over which the meltwater of
the glacier flows north over the Río Ene, the Río Tambo and the Río Ucayali,
where it joins in the northeastern part of Peru with the Marañón to the upper
reaches of the Amazon.
The longest river in South America has its origin in Peru: the Amazon
with its source river Ucayali and a length of around 6,400 km, of which around
2,700 km is within Peru.
Other rivers in the country are:
- Río Ucayali with a length of 1,600 km
- Río Apurimac with a length of 731 km
- Río Ene with a length of 181 km
- Río Tambo with a length of 158 km
With a total length of 2,670 km, these four rivers form the longest upper
reaches of the Amazon.
- Marañón with a length of 1,600 km
- Río Huallaga with a length of 1,100 km
- Río Napo with a length of 800 km
- Río Putumayo with a length of 1,600 km
The Rio Urubamba is particularly worth mentioning because it was one of the
rivers on which Werner Herzog (born 1942) shot the film Aguirre in 1971. The
film depicts a Spanish expedition train in search of the gold country Eldorado.
Klaus Kinski (1926-1991) played the role of Aguirre. Herzog's 1982 film
Fitzcarraldo, starring Klaus Kinski, and parts of his 2009 My Son, My Son, What
Have Ye Done, were also shot on the Rio Urubamba
The largest lake in Peru is Lake Titicaca with an area
of around 8,300 km² and is also the largest lake in South America. Its maximum
depth is around 280 m. The lake is at an altitude of 3,810 m. Its western part
belongs to Peru while the eastern part belongs to Bolivia. While the lake has
about 25 tributaries, it has only one outlet with the Río Desaguadero, which
discharges about 10% of the water. The remaining 90% of its supplied water
Other lakes are:
- Lago Lauricocha
- Lake Junín
There are no large islands in front of the country, but there are around
forty smaller islands off the coast of the country.
The Pacific Ocean is also known as the Pacific, Pacific, or Great Ocean
With a length of approx. 2,415 km, Peru borders the Pacific Ocean, the largest
and deepest ocean in the world. It stretches between the Arctic, North, Central
and South America as well as the Antarctic, Australia, Oceania and Asia. It has
a gigantic area of 166.24 million km² (not including secondary seas) and
therefore covers around 35% of the entire surface of the earth. The ocean, which
is larger than all the continents combined, goes at its deepest point in the
Mariana Trench down to 11,034 meters below sea level. km to the Pacific Ocean,
the largest and deepest ocean in the world. It stretches between the Arctic,
North, Central and South America as well as the Antarctic, Australia, Oceania
and Asia. It has a gigantic area of 166.24 million km² (not including
secondary seas) and therefore covers around 35% of the entire surface of the