Egypt: population and cities
Countryaah website, Egypt has about 100 million people. It should be mentioned that in 1981 there
were only around 42 million.
less than 5% are older than 65 years
around 65% are between 15 and 64 years old
around 30% are younger than 15 years
The population of Egypt consists mainly of Arabized Hamites and Arab Bedouins,
as well as Berbers, Turks, Nubians and Sudanese as well as minorities of
Syrians, Palestinians, Greeks, Italians, Cypriots and Maltese.
Slightly less than 90% of the residents of Egypt are Muslims, and Islam is
also the state religion of the country. Another 8% -10% are Copts, there are
also Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant and Jewish minorities.
There are around 95,000 mosques and around 2,000 churches in the country.
Egyptian Arabic is the country's official language. Nubian and Berber languages
such as Siwi are also spoken. English and French are used as commercial
languages. Coptic developed from the language of ancient Egypt and is now only
used as a sacred language.
Capital, other cities
The capital of Egypt is Cairo (Medinat al-Qahira), with a population of
around 22 million. Interestingly, the name "Cairo" comes from the old Arabic
name "Medinat al Qahira" (the victorious city) for the planet Mars. The name was
given in 969 after the laying of the foundation stone by the general Gohar
al-Sicili, who was born in Sicily and converted to Islam, because Mars was
crossing the meridian (longitude) of the city that was just founded at that
Other cities are:
- Alexandria (Al-Iskandariyah) with around 3.4 million
- Giza (Al-Jizah) with around 2.4 million residents
- Shubra al-Khaymah with around 900,000 residents
- Port Said (Bur Sa'id) with around 500,000 residents
- Suez (As-Suways) with around 420,000 residents.
Another very important city in Egypt is Luxor, which
extends both near the Valley of the Kings and near the temple complex of Karnak.
Egypt: geography, map
Defined by DigoPaul, Egypt covers an area of 1,002,000 km².
- Fields and fields
Around 2.5% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for
growing cotton, as well as rice, vegetables, millet and broad beans.
About 96.5% of the country consists of the Sahara desert.
Egypt shares a border with a total of four states.
- to the Gaza Strip with a length of 11 km
- to Israel with a length of 266 km
- to Libya with a length of 1,115 km
- to Sudan with a length of 1,273 km.
Egypt has a coast to the Mediterranean Sea with a length of around 2,450
km. It also borders the Gulf of Suez and Aqaba and in the southeast - or in the
south of the Sinai - the Red Sea.
The tidal range in the Mediterranean is around a decimeter (= 0.1 m) - and in
the Red Sea between 0.6 and 0.9 m.
Longitude and latitude
Egypt - including the Sinai Peninsula - extends over the following
geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ) and geographical longitude (abbreviation
|Δφ = from rounded 22 ° to 32 ° north latitude
Δλ = from rounded 025 ° to 035 ° east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Egypt, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET), i.e.
the time (without summer time). A minus sign means that it is earlier there, a
plus sign that it is later than CET:
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time zones,
The highest point of the sun in Cairo
Cairo lies at a northern latitude of around φ = 30 °.
As long as the sun is at the tropic, i.e. at δ = 23.5 °, summer starts in
Cairo, this is June 21. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon,
according to Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
30 ° = (90 ° - h) + 23.5 °
At 83.5 °, the sun in Cairo has the highest level of the entire year above
the horizon (more precisely: above the horizon).
The highest mountain in the country is Mount Catherine with a height of 2,637
m. Other high mountains: Mount Sinai (Gebel Mûsa) with a height
of 2,285 m
Shâyib el Banât with a height of 2,187 m.
The longest and at the same time only river in the country is the Nile (Arabic:
an-Nīl) with a length of 6,671 kilometers. It is and was Egypt's economic
lifeline. The giant stream is either the longest or the second longest river in
the world (depending on how the Amazon is defined).
The Nile rises in Rwanda and flows from there
through Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, Sudan and of course Egypt. The Nile ends
in a delta in the far north of Egypt and flows into the Mediterranean.
The country includes several smaller and larger lakes. The largest
(artificial) lake is the Nasser Reservoir with an area of
around 5,500 km². Other larger lakes are Birket Qârûn and Buheirit
Mediterranean, Red Sea
Egypt borders the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Red Sea in the
southeast and south (Sinai Peninsula).
The Suez Canal serves as a man-made link between the Mediterranean, the Gulf
of Suez and then the Red Sea.
Around 95% of Egypt consists of desert - it is the Egyptian Sahara and
the deserts of Sinai.
According to scientists, the formation of the Sahara desert began around 70
million years ago, when the water level in the Mediterranean Sea sank and huge
"beaches" - today's desert - were left behind. It is estimated that at that time
the edge of the sea up to the present-day Bahariyya oasis, which is about 300 km
from the present-day Mediterranean coast.
The desert in Egypt is characterized by great diversity and is said to unite
all types of desert in the world. So you can find dunes with steep edges, scree
and rock formations or gorges, endless expanses that are only interrupted by
conical limestone formations.
Also worth mentioning is the so-called White Desert, which is about 500 km
southwest of Cairo. This desert area and its surroundings were declared a
national park in 2002, with a total area of around 3,010 km².
One finds here, for example, white limestone monoliths, which are sedimented and
calcified remains of plankton that date from around 80 million years ago. They
got their current shape after the sea receded through wind and weather as well
as the extreme temperature differences between day and night. Some of the
monoliths are reminiscent of mushrooms, a sphinx or human heads.
Although the desert looks almost lifeless at first glance, numerous animals
still live here, such as the desert fox, gerbils, lizards, beetles, scorpions
and snakes as well as birds such as falcons.
Wild sheep (Weddan) live in the area around Uweinat and Gilf Kebir and in the
eastern part of the desert there are even ibexes.
But humans have also left numerous traces in the desert, such as 5,000 year old
rock paintings, markings of old caravan routes or ceramics from the Romans. And
even prehistoric remains of sharks have been discovered in the desert sands.
It is also interesting that the desert sand is considered to be almost sterile
and therefore the Bedouins rub desert sand into their wounds when they are
Since time immemorial, the desert has also been considered a place of
contemplation and reflection. Not least some of the monasteries that are still
inhabited today are an example of this.
If you are a little enthusiastic about the mysticism of the desert, you should
read the book "Wind, Sand und Sterne" by the French writer Antoine de
Saint-Exupéry (1900-1944) from 1939. De Saint-Exupéry in 1935 had to make an
emergency landing about 200 km west of Cairo in the Sahara on the occasion of a
flight from Paris to Saigon in which he had lost his orientation. He remained
unharmed and was rescued by the Bedu when he was looking for a human habitation
- shortly before he died of thirst.
The approximately 61,000 km² Sinai Peninsula is bordered by the Gulf of Suez
in the west, the Gulf of Aqaba and Israel in the east and the Red Sea in the
south. The peninsula forms a transition between Asia and Africa.
The Katharinenberg (Jabal Katrina) - is with a height of 2,637 m the highest
mountain of the peninsula and also of the whole of Egypt.
In the north of Sinai, annual rainfall of 20 mm to 50 mm is expected, while in
the south it is between 150 mm and 200 mm. That is enough for nomads in South
Sinai to be able to keep their animals in wadis and on mountain slopes.
The Suez Canal
The Suez Canal as a shipping channel connects the port cities of Port
Said and Port Taufiq. This enables ships to pass from
the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.