Mozambique: population and cities
Population and social situation
Countryaah website, Mozambique has around 30 million residents. Life expectancy in the country is
still relatively low. It averages 44 years for women and 42 years for men. The
43% of the population who are under 15 years old are compared to just 3% who are
older than 65 years. On average and statistically every Mozambican woman has 5.4
children in the course of her life. This high number is partly due to the fact
that 88% of married women have no modern contraceptive methods available.
The high infant mortality rate is a result of the fact that only about 50% of
births can be cared for at all. Many mothers still die in childbirth. The supply
of clean drinking water, a UN human right since 2010, is also worrying. Not even
every second person in Mozambique has access to it.
HIV/AIDS is a big problem in Mozambique. According to official figures, 12.5%
of the population are HIV positive. The disease spreads further through
unprotected sexual contacts and poor hygiene. Of the approximately 1.5 million
orphaned children in the country, around 470,000 are AIDS orphans.
Child labor, which many families cannot do without, is associated with the
great poverty in the country. State protection is only available for children
who have a birth certificate. The remaining 94% of those under five without a
certificate are exposed to child labor, abuse, forced marriage and/or armed
service as child soldiers.
Education is also bad in the country. About 50% of adults can neither read
nor write. 66% of the women are illiterate. However, since the civil war, the
country has made significant efforts to ensure primary education and to improve
About 98% of the population of Mozambique are members of Bantu tribes, of which
about 40% are Makua, 20% Tsonga, 12% Yao, 11% Makonde, 7% Swahili and 4%
Chewa. Furthermore, about 1.7% Chinese and numerous Indians live in the country
as well as a minority of Europeans and mixed race.
affiliation The percentages of religious affiliation differ greatly from one
another in various sources. A large part of the population practices natural
religions. The proportion of Christians in the country is estimated at around
40% and that of Muslims at around 18%.
The official language of Mozambique is Portuguese. Makua, Nyanja and other Bantu
languages are used as slang languages. A minority in the north speaks Swahil.
Capital and other cities
Maputo Maputo, the largest and capital of Mozambique
with around 2 million residents, extends on the western side of the bay of the
same name and up to 95 kilometers long. Maputo - the seat of a Catholic and an
Anglican bishop as well as two universities - is one of the most interesting
cities in Mozambique for tourism. In addition to the majestic Portuguese
fortress from 1787, the Museum of Mozambique, the Teatro Avenida and the very
interesting train station by Gustave Eiffel, Maputo attracts thousands of
tourists every year with its fine sandy beaches. Other interesting and/larger
The second largest city in Mozambique with 560,000 residents also
functions as the capital of the Sofala province. Alongside Maputo and Nacala,
the modern city is the third major seaport for international shipping.
Around 185,600 people live in northern Mozambique's economic center, a bustling
administrative, banking and commercial city. Nampula is the commercial epicenter
for the entire region. The two-towered cathedral De Nosa Senhora da Conceicao,
which rises imposingly over the roofs of the surrounding area, is likely to be
more interesting for tourists. In addition, the privately run Universidade
Católica de Moçambique settled in Nampula in 1996.
The capital of the Cabo Delgado province is in the north of the country. It is a
port city that hugs the south side of the third largest natural bay on earth. As
an important center of northern Mozambique, numerous banks, supermarkets and
restaurants have settled in Pemba, but the streets that are held together by
potholes give one a rather shabby feeling. Still, there are some pretty colonial
buildings on display, and the city is popular with wealthy Mozambicans and South
Africans alike for its good water sports.
Mozambique: Geography and Map
Defined by DigoPaul, Mozambique covers a total area of 799,380 km². Thereof:
Around 18% of the country are forest and scrubland.
- Meadow and pasture land
Around 56% of the land is used as meadow or pasture land.
- Fields and fields
Around 5.4% of the land is used as arable land or fields, especially for
growing cashew nuts, tea, sugar cane and cotton, as well as sisal, maize,
copra, oil plants and citrus fruits.
Around 1.4% of the country's surface is covered by lakes.
Mozambique shares a border with the following six
- Malawi with a length of 1,569 km,
- Zambia with a length of 419 km,
- Zimbabwe with a length of 1,231 km,
- South Africa with a length of 491 km,
- Swaziland with a length of 105 km and
- Tanzania with a length of 756 km.
Tidal range in Mozambique
On the coast of Mozambique, the tidal range is between 1.3 and 3.8 m. For
detailed explanations of ebb and flow, see Tides, Ebb and Flow.
The world's highest tidal range can be found in the Bay of Fundy in Canada,
where it is up to 16 m, with spring tide even over 20 m. The Bay of Fundy is
located on the Atlantic between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia, which is called Nova Scotia in German and whose capital is Halifax. On
the German North Sea coast it varies between 1 m and 3 m. In the western Baltic
Sea, on the other hand, the tidal range is only 0.3 m, while it is barely
noticeable in the eastern Baltic Sea.
Longitude and latitude
Mozambique extends over the following geographical latitude (abbreviation Δφ)
and geographical longitude (abbreviation Δλ):
|Δφ = from 10 ° 27 'to 26 ° 52' south latitude
Δλ = from 030 ° 12 'to 040 ° 51' east longitude
You can find detailed information on this subject under Longitude and
For Mozambique, the following value applies to Central European Time (CET),
i.e. the time (without summer time) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. A
minus sign means that it is earlier there, a plus sign that it is later than
Further and detailed explanations of the time can be found under Time
Highest level of the sun in Maputo
Maputo lies at a southern latitude of around φ = 26 °. If the sun is at the
tropic, i.e. at δ = -23.5 °, it is the beginning of summer in Maputo, this is
December 21st. Then, for the highest position of the sun at noon, according to
Eq. 1 (see position of the sun):
-26 ° = (90 ° - h) + -23.5 °
At 87.5 °, the sun is at its highest level of the entire year above the
horizon (precisely: above the horizon).
The image point of the sun and thus its declination are located north of the
latitude of Maputo all year round. Therefore the sun is not there at noon in the
south, as in our latitudes, but in the north. In this case, the sun moves from
east to north to west, where, like us, it sets.
The highest mountain in the country is Monte Binga with a height of 2,436 m.
Other high mountains are:
- Serra Namúliwith a height of 2,419 m
- Serra Jéciwith a height of 1,836 m
The longest river in the country is the Zambezi with a length of around 2,660
Other rivers are:
- Limpopoin the south of the country with a length
of around 1,600 km
- Lio Rovumaon the border with Tanzania with a
length of around 1,100 km
- Saveinland with a length of around 600 km
- Rio Lúrioin the northeast of the country
The country includes several smaller and larger lakes. The largest lake is Lake
Malawi (Lago Nyassa) with an area of 29,604 km², it is the fourth deepest lake
in the world and the third largest lake in Africa. Another large lake is the Cahora
Bassa reservoir with an area of around 2,800 km².
The Bazaruto Archipelago is in front of the land. It consists of the Ilha da
Bazaruto with an area of about 260 km², the Ilha Benguerra with an area of
55 km² and the islands of Magaruque and Santa Carolina. Particularly
noteworthy is the only 1.5 km² large island, which has been part of the UNESCO
Straits of Madagascar, Indian Ocean
Mozambique borders the Indian Ocean - but over a length of around 1,500 km
between the country and Madagascar on the Strait of Madagascar - a tributary of
the Indian Ocean. You can find a detailed description of these seas at Goruma
under the following links:
- Indian Ocean
- Strait of Madagascar